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The main objective was to investigate whether children aged 9-15 years at baseline were more likely to experience an incident event of spinal pain after experiencing lower extremity pain. Children’s musculoskeletal pain was monitored by weekly mobile phone text message responses from parents, indicating whether the child had spinal pain, lower extremity pain, or upper extremity pain the preceding week. Data were analyzed using mixed effect logistic regression models and cox regression models. The association between an incident event of spinal pain and LE pain the preceding weeks increased with increasing observation period and was statistically significant for 12 and 20 weeks (OR = 1.34 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.70) and OR = 1.39 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.75), respectively).


We found that the likelihood increased in children with more frequent or longer duration of lower extremity pain. The reversed relationship was investigated as well, and we also found a positive association between spinal pain and a subsequent incidence event of lower extremity pain, but less pronounced.

Children were more likely to experience an incident event of spinal pain after experiencing lower extremity pain. The likelihood increased in children with more frequent or longer duration of lower extremity pain. What is known: • both spinal pain and lower extremity pain often start early in life and is common already in adolescence. What is new: • children were more likely to experience an incident event of spinal pain after experiencing LE pain. • the likelihood increased in children with more frequent or longer duration of LE pain.

Neuropathic pain after spinal surgery, the so-called failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), is a frequently observed troublesome disease entity. Although medications may be effective to some degree, many patients continue experiencing intolerable pain and functional disability. Only gabapentin has been proven effective in patients with FBSS. No relevant studies regarding manipulation or physiotherapy for FBSS have been published. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been widely investigated as a treatment option for chronic neuropathic pain, including FBSS. SCS was generally accepted to improve chronic back and leg pain, physical function, and sleep quality. Although the cost effectiveness of SCS has been proved in many studies, its routine application is limited considering that it is invasive and is associated with safety issues. Percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis has also shown good clinical outcomes; however, its effects persisted for only a short period. Because none of the current methods provide absolute superiority in terms of clinical outcomes, a multidisciplinary approach is required to manage this complex disease. Further studies concerning the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and cost effectiveness of FBSS are warranted to deepen our understanding of this condition.

The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic pain, much more difficult to treat. The clinical assessment of pain source can be a challenge because of the complex anatomy and function of the spine; the advanced imaging methods are often not sufficient for a definitive diagnosis because similar findings could be present in either asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects: a clinical correlation is always mandatory and the therapy cannot rely uniquely upon any imaging abnormalities. Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. Special attention will be done to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain.

Image-guided spinal injection is commonly performed in symptomatic patients to decrease pain severity, confirm the pain generator, and delay or avoid surgery. This article focuses on the radiologist as spine interventionist and addresses the following four topics relevant to the radiologist who performs corticosteroid injections for pain management: (a) the rationale behind corticosteroid injection, (b) the interaction with patients, (c) the role of imaging in procedural selection and planning, and (d) the pearls and pitfalls of fluoroscopically guided injections. Factors that contribute to the success of a pain management service include communication skills and risk mitigation. A critical factor is the correlation of clinical symptoms with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings. Radiologists can leverage their training in MR image interpretation to distinguish active pain generators in the spine from incidental abnormalities. Knowledge of fluoroscopic anatomy and patterns of contrast material flow guide the planning and execution of safe and effective needle placement. © RSNA, 2016 online supplemental material is available for this article.