Draw-a-person test – pin eight escoliosis dorsal izquierda

In children under ten years old, figure drawing age is somewhat correlated with other measures of mental age, such as the Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. [ citation needed ejercicios hernia discal lumbar: try "Validity" sections in Harris, Hasan, or DHEW]

A checklist for Goodenough’s test distributed by the University of Washington listed the following features: [9] Gross detail (6) 1 for each of head, legs, arms, and trunk; trunk has thickness but longer than width; top of trunk broadens to suggest shoulders Attachment to trunk (4) Both arms and legs attached to trunk; arms and legs attached at correct points; neck present; neck outline continuous with head or trunk Head detail (7) 1 for each of eye, nose, nostril, mouth, and hair; nose and mouth have thickness, including two lips; hairline present: hair has shape to it other than just a scribble around the circumference of the head Clothing (5) At least one identifiable article; a second article, such as a hat or trousers, both articles opaque; all escoliosis fotos clothing opaque, including sleeves and trousers; four articles; fully dressed with an identifiable role, such as business suit or a soldier’s uniform, including sleeves, trousers, and shoes Fingers (5) Some indication of fingers; correct number of fingers; fingers thick and longer than width, and differing in angle by no more than 180 degrees; thumb appears distinct and opposable; identifiable "hand" section from MCP to wrist separate from fingers Joints in limbs (2) Elbow or shoulder identifiable; knee or hip identifiable Proportion (5) Trunk area is 2 to 10 heads; arms roughly as long as trunk and do not reach knee; legs between 1 and 2 trunks long; feet with thickness and between 1/10 and 1/3 of leg; arms and legs have thickness Motor coordination (6) Lines are firm and do not leave marked gaps or overlaps where they join (except for "sketchy" short strokes in more mature drawings); [3] :104 all lines are firm and joined correctly (extremely strict, bordering on professional quality, credited for fewer than three of Goodenough’s 95 sample drawings); head is more shaped than a circle or ellipse and not obviously irregular; trunk is more shaped than a circle or ellipse and not obviously irregular; arms and legs have thickness, not obviously irregular, and not narrowing near trunk; features symmetrical to the extent applicable Fine head detail (7) Correct number of ears for angle; ears positioned correctly; eye hair (brow or lashes); eye has pupil; eye longer than height; pupils pointing same direction in front or forward in profile; chin and forehead present Profile bonus points (4) Chin projects; heel visible; head, trunk hernia lumbar ejercicios prohibidos, and feet without error; straight-on side view with all features opaque and none doubled (sorry, Picasso)


Goodenough explained why she excluded some features, such as teeth, shading, movement, pupils facing forward, and three-quarter view. Some were too difficult to score, some were not monotonic (that is, they increased and decreased with age), and some depended more on the circumstances of the test (such as pencil hardness) than intellectual maturity. [3] :20-21

The 1988 edition of the test by Naglieri includes a more systematic scoring system, grading specific aspects (presence, proportion, and detail) of 14 features (arms, attachment, clothing, ears, eyes, feet, fingers, hair, head, legs, mouth, neck, nose, and trunk).

Arms At least escoliosis levoconvexa one arm; thickness and correct number of arms; thickness and longer than width; all arms pointing downward or in action. Attachment Head attached to neck or trunk; correct number of arms attached to trunk and not head; correct number of arms and legs (more than just feet) attached to trunk; arms attached to top half of trunk and legs attached to bottom half. Clothing 1 for each of up to three identifiable articles identifiable by shape, shading, or fastener; clothing is opaque. (Eyeglasses and earrings are not clothing; they are ear and eye details.) Ears At least one ear; correct number of ears; taller than width in all ears; earring or earlobe in at least one ear. Eyes At least one eye; more than a line or dot; details such as pupil, eye hair, or glasses; wider than height. Feet At least one foot distinct from leg; thickness; correct number of feet, all with detail such as toes, heel, or shoelace; at least one foot wider than dolor lumbar y pierna izquierda height. Fingers Hand distinct from arm; five fingers; correct number of hands all with five fingers; thumb has distinct shape or position; all fingers have thickness; those fingers that have thickness are longer than width. Hair Presence; hair on sides of head or facial hair; distinct style such as part, braids, or decs, more than just a squiggle around the top half. Head Presence; bounding box including hair and ears is taller than width. Legs At least one hernia de disco lumbar tratamiento leg distinct from foot; indication of knee or crotch; thickness and longer than width in both legs. Mouth Presence; thickness (lips, teeth, or open); thickness and wider than height. Neck Neck distinct from trunk; thickness; tangent to head or trunk or separated at bottom by a collar. Nose Present; indication of nostrils or bridge; taller than width. Trunk Piece other than head, arms, and legs; indication of waist, belt, chest, or shoulder; taller than width.

A character showing unilateral features (difference in scores between left and right side) showed hemineglect in the candidate, and bilateral features were noticeably correlated with performance in the candidate’s activities of daily living (ADLs). [12]

Some variants of Draw-A-Person are intended as a projective test to measure emotional disturbance rather than figure drawing age. The Draw-A-Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance (DAP:SPED) test, for instance, requires the candidate to make drawings of man, woman, and self, and grades them based on inclusion and omission of features that correlate with emotional disturbance, even if this disturbance is over- or underreported by the candidate’s parent. [14]

Much of the Machover interpretation is based on the size of various features. It treats a large head as representing "a large ego", a paranoid or narcissistic personality, and drawing it last shows "disturbances with interpersonal relationships." A disconnected neck could mean schizophrenia, and eyelashes or high-heel hernia discal lumbar shoes drawn by a man mean gay. [15] Stereotypical Freudian theories abound. I smell what RationalWiki calls woo.

A study at an elementary school in Pennsylvania showed that incorporating two hours of figure drawing into a kindergarten anatomy curriculum noticeably improved the detail of the students’ drawings, even though it didn’t significantly improve scores in the protocol used. [16]

Since the first edition of the test, illustration convention in children’s entertainment shifted from the relative realism of Gray and Sharp’s Dick and Jane to the extreme stylization of 21st century cartoons such as South Park and The Amazing World of Gumball, not to mention manga and anime.

• If the protocol doesn’t specify an adult, the candidate may end up drawing a very young character, which may cost a point for arms not reaching the bottom of the trunk. So may a character with a short-limbed, stocky build due to hypochondroplasia.

• A character who happens to have no legs may cost two dolor lumbar izquierdo cadera to three years’ worth of points for leg presence, leg attachment, leg proportion, trousers, and fingers (because of mitten hands). This gives many scales an uncompensated ableist bias. Typical instructions fail to specify that the person shall be "healthy"; in fact, candidates may be told to draw "any kind of person you want to draw." [7] Goodenough recommended use of "common sense" when scoring drawings of a character with one leg and a suggestion of a crutch, [3] :91 but this doesn’t appear in later scoring manuals. In particular, Harris changes it to "crotch&quot hernia lumbar; for some odd reason. [8] :148-149

For this reason, Harris rejected DAP’s validity for comparisons across cultures, instead suggesting that "for the most valid results, the points of the scale should be restandardized for every group having a distinctly different pattern of dress, mode of living, and quality or level of academic education." [8] :133

But it still reflects Western cisgender norms, assuming for instance that a man will not dress "feminine" or wear a long coat, and that neither sex will wear loose clothing that disguises the shape of the waist and hips, as is common in the Middle East.

• A character wearing mittens may cost points for lack of fingers. This and lack of visible ears may be more common in an Eskimo character who wears a parka. But in an Eskimo study, points lost to fingers were often regained on the opposable thumb, nose, eyebrows, distinct costume, and especially boot details. [8] :131-133 [16]

• The crotch criterion in several scales is intended to penalize immature drawings with an excessive "thigh gap", where legs are parallel and attached to the trunk too far apart. (Think of SpongeBob SquarePants.) The Harris woman scale includes an alternate criterion based on lower leg angles that compensates for the effect of a skirt that is calf-length or shorter. [8] :284 Generalize skirt operacion de columna lumbar recuperacion compensations to the man scale as well, using language borrowed from the Harris woman scale. This might improve validity with drawings of a long coat, tunic, kilt, or sarong.

• Give the test in multiple regions and find items that correlate more with culture than with intellectual ability. Then balance the cultural items such that penalties for items uncommon in one culture compensate for penalties for items uncommon in another culture. For example, balance each body part such that possible detail points when covered match those when left bare. If 3 points are possible for shoes, 3 points ought to be possible for bare feet.

• Formalize Goodenough’s "common sense" treatment of disability in characters. During the "Tell me about it" phase, the candidate may clarify that the character is physically impaired and dolor lumbar causas uses other body parts to compensate. Score those parts as both the homologous and analogous part. (A homologous part has the same position in the body plan; an analogous part has the same function.) For example, Bidge’s arms would be scored on both the (homologous) arm criteria and the (analogous) leg criteria, and treating her mittens as boots would make up for some lost finger points. This quantum superposition of arms and legs-attached-to-shoulders [17] would restore 9 points on the Goodenough scale (1 gross detail, 2 attachment, 1 clothing, 1 joints, 3 proportion, 1 coordination) and 10 on the Naglieri scale (2 attachment, 3 feet, 3 legs, 2 perfect sections).

• ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Adrian Kniel and Christiane Kniel. " The Draw a Person Test for Ghana". University of Education, Winneba, Ghana, 2008. Accessed 2015-06-01. Cites Jack A. Naglieri. Draw A Person: A quantitative scoring system Manual. 1988.

• ↑ Kana Imuta, Damian Scarf, Henry Pharo, and Harlene Hayne. " Drawing a Close to the Use of Human Figure Drawings as a Projective Measure of Intelligence". PLoS One. 2013; 8(3): e58991. Published online 2013 Mar 14. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058991 dolor lumbar derecho y pierna. Accessed 2015-06-07.

• ↑ Rosalind Arden, Maciej Trzaskowski, Victoria Garfield, and Robert Plomin. " Genes influence young children’s human figure drawings and their association with intelligence a decade later." Psychol Sci. 2014 Oct;25(10):1843-50. doi: 10.1177/0956797614540686. Epub 2014 Aug 20. Via Rachel Moss. " How The Quality Of Your Child’s Stick Drawings Are Linked To Intelligence In Later Life". HuffPost, 2014-08-20. Accessed 2018-11-20.

• ↑ 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 Dale B. Harris. Children’s Drawings as Measures of Intellectual Maturity: A Revision and Extension of the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1963.

• ↑ " 5-Minute Pediatric Consult: Development Tables: TABLE 1. SCORING SYSTEM: DRAW-A-PERSON TEST". Accessed 2015-06-08. Archived copy available. Gives points for head, neck, +thickness, eyes, brows or lashes, nose, +thickness and not round ball, mouth, lip thickness, both nose and lip thickness, both chin escoliosis lumbar derecha and forehead, nose narrows between eyes, hair, +detail, ears, fingers, +correct number, thumb distinct, hands, arms, arms at rest or in activity, feet, arms and legs attached, +at corners of trunk, trunk, thickness, clothing, +2 articles

• ↑ Miranda Crusco. " Draw-A-Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance: An investigation of the sensitivity of this method to internalising and externalising behavioural problems identified by the Rutter Parent Questionnaire at age 7 in the 1958 National Child Development Study". Centre for Longitudinal Studies, 2013-08. Accessed 2015-06-01.