Fertility and infertility branch (fib) nichd – eunice kennedy shriver national institute of child health and human escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha development

Gap: although early miscarriage is a serious issue, very little is known about its causes and consequences. Only about 50% of conceptions advance beyond 20 weeks of gestation. Approximately 50% to 70% of these early pregnancy losses result from lethal numeric chromosome escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha errors (i.E., aneuploidy), which affect various aspects of pregnancy establishment, such as implantation and early placentation.

Gap: major epigenetic modification of the genome occur during gametogenesis and escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha preimplantation embryonic development, yet the details of this process and the effect of escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha atypical epigenetic modifications on the health of the offspring remain escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha unclear. Data suggest that modifiable maternal and paternal factors, such as nutrition, stress, drug use, or physical activity among others, can alter the epigenome of several future generations.

Gap: evidence over the past decade indicates that an individual’s fertility status correlates with and potentially predicts risk of escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha developing several chronic health conditions, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic dysfunction. Additional work is needed to understand this link for infertile escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha men and women and to begin to investigate the possible escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha biological basis for this association.

Gap: many cases of infertility cannot be ascribed to a specific escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha genetic cause. Knowing the genetic basis of infertility is critical, not only for eventually treating infertile couples but also for escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha evaluating the risk that the condition will be passed to escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha their offspring.

Gap: the interplay of nutrition, metabolism, and reproductive health is well-established: poor nutrition that results in aberrant energy balance negatively affects escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha fertility in men and women. Altered metabolism can manifest as extremely low weight or overweight/obesity, or in conditions such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and gestational diabetes, all of which profoundly impact fertility and the reproductive system. Recent work in the field suggests that nutrition regulates metabolism escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha through alterations in the microbiome.

Gap: the reproductive system is unique in that it undergoes profound escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha functional and structural changes at different points in the normal escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha lifespan, yet strong indicators of the onset or completion of those escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha changes are lacking. Longitudinal studies to identify novel markers of sexual development and escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha reproductive aging are critical to distinguish normal transitional development from escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha atypical development. Identifying potential problems with fertility or diagnosing reproductive diseases and escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha disorders that can affect fertility at an earlier age, would facilitate prevention and/or treatment strategies.

Priority: identify reliable biomarkers to study reproductive transitions across the male escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha and female lifespans, including differentiation of male and female gonads and gametes during escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha embryonic development, puberty, and reproductive aging/decline in fecundity. Technology and models for infertility and fertility preservation

Main research areas: trophoblast development and differentiation; early placental formation; female reproductive tract (oviduct, uterus, vagina); uterine function and implantation biology; implantation-based early pregnancy loss; interplay of immune and endocrine systems in blastocyst-uterine interaction

Main research areas:assisted reproductive technology; reproductive medicine and infertility (includes infertility disorders and reproductive disorders that impact fertility such escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha as endometriosis); RMN; polycystic ovary syndrome; female reproductive tract (oviduct, uterus, vagina); endometrial function and implantation biology; clinical trials

Main research areas: totipotent and pluripotent stem cells; embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells; reprogramming; oocyte quality and developmental competence; genetics and epigenetics of preimplantation embryo; reproductive neuroendocrinology; gonadotropins; metabolic signals and reproduction; reproductive behavior

Main research areas: genetic and epigenetic control of early germ cell development and escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha meiosis; fertility preservation; ovarian function and dysfunction; primary ovarian insufficiency; sex determination and differentiation (in the context of fertility and infertility); training for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in reproductive health

• genetic regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls menstrual cycle length. Characteristics of the menstrual cycle, including its length, are an important index of a woman’s reproductive health. Dr. Stephanie seminara and her colleagues performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data on menstrual cycle length in 44,871 women of european ancestry, and they confirmed menstrual length is partially controlled by the escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit (FSHB). They also identified four additional novel signals in, or near, the genes encoding GNRH1 (gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1), PGR (progesterone receptor), NR5A2 (a nuclear receptor involved in cholesterol metabolism), and INS-IGF2 (isoform 2 of insulin) that contribute to the length of a menstrual cycle. These findings confirm the role of genetic variation in the escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in regulating of menstrual cycle length, and also identify potential novel local regulatory mechanisms. (PMID: 30202859)

• primate born using sperm from frozen juvenile testicular tissue. Cancer treatment can spare a young boy’s life, at the cost of his future fertility. Currently, no options exist for fertility preservation for boys who are escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha too young to produce sperm. Dr. Kyle orwig and his colleagues grafted cryopreserved testicular sections taken escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha from juvenile rhesus macaques back into the original donors after escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha puberty. The grafts grew and made testosterone and sperm, which in one case resulted in a successful pregnancy and escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha live birth. This is the first proof that immature testicular tissue can escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha be preserved and used later to restore fertility. (PMID: 30898927)

• new factors identified in ovarian primordial follicle survival. Work from dr. Joan jorgensen’s laboratory shows that expression patterns of transcription factors irx3 escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha and irx5 are critical in establishing the connections between oocytes escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha and their surrounding somatic cells during primordial follicle formation. Defects in this patterning disrupt communication between the two cell escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha types and result in oocyte death, potentially shortening the span of a woman’s fertile reproductive years. (PMID: 30071018)

• epigenetic changes in ADAMTS linked to preterm birth. Dr. Mainigi and colleagues studied placentas from a population of women escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha at high risk for preterm birth. Their research showed that regulation of methylation levels of members escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha of the gene family ADAMTS, implicated in cell invasion and migration, is important in regulating early placentation and later susceptibility to escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha preterm birth. (PMID: 30239759)

• major depression and antidepressant use affect male and female fertility. A study of major depression in couples with infertility showed escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha that currently active major depression in infertile men can lower escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha chances of pregnancy, and use of non-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants in infertile women could be escoliosis dorsal de convexidad derecha linked to first-trimester pregnancy loss. (PMCID: PMC5973807)

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