Nutrition and hernia de disco lumbar pdf evidence-based practice – nutrition – libguides at arizona state university

Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about hernia de disco lumbar pdf an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data hernia de disco lumbar pdf relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events hernia de disco lumbar pdf or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under hernia de disco lumbar pdf study have the disease or outcome of interest and their hernia de disco lumbar pdf characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or hernia de disco lumbar pdf other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study hernia de disco lumbar pdf population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a hernia de disco lumbar pdf period of time.

Studies which start with the identification of persons with a hernia de disco lumbar pdf disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined hernia de disco lumbar pdf by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of hernia de disco lumbar pdf the attribute in each group.

Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hernia de disco lumbar pdf hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a hernia de disco lumbar pdf particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

Work that is the report of a pre-planned clinical study of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in humans selected according to predetermined criteria of hernia de disco lumbar pdf eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable hernia de disco lumbar pdf effects. While most clinical trials concern humans, this publication type may be used for clinical veterinary articles hernia de disco lumbar pdf meeting the requisites for humans. (pubmed LIMIT)

Work consisting of a clinical trial that involves at least hernia de disco lumbar pdf one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected hernia de disco lumbar pdf by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table. (pubmed LIMIT)

Work consisting of a clinical trial involving one or more hernia de disco lumbar pdf test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicine, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trial is characterized as a RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL (pubmed LIMIT)

Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects hernia de disco lumbar pdf of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES, COHORT STUDIES, and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.

Works consisting of studies using a quantitative method of combining hernia de disco lumbar pdf the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to hernia de disco lumbar pdf evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc. It is often an overview of clinical trials. It is usually called a meta-analysis by the author or sponsoring body and should be hernia de disco lumbar pdf differentiated from reviews of literature. (pubmed LIMIT)

Controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several hernia de disco lumbar pdf cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific hernia de disco lumbar pdf patient populations. For example, a multi-center study of congenital anomalies in children. (pubmed LIMIT)

Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS, DRUG EVALUATION, and DRUG EVALUATION, PRE-CLINICAL are available. (pubmed LIMIT)

Works consisting of studies using a quantitative method of combining hernia de disco lumbar pdf the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to hernia de disco lumbar pdf evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc. It is often an overview of clinical trials. It is usually called a meta-analysis by the author or sponsoring body and should be hernia de disco lumbar pdf differentiated from reviews of literature. (pubmed LIMIT)

A systematic review attempts to collate all empirical evidence that hernia de disco lumbar pdf fits pre-specified eligibility criteria in order to answer a specific research hernia de disco lumbar pdf question. It uses explicit, systematic methods that are selected with a view to minimizing hernia de disco lumbar pdf bias, thus providing more reliable findings from which conclusions can be hernia de disco lumbar pdf drawn and decisions made (antman 1992, oxman 1993) . The key characteristics of a systematic review are:

Many systematic reviews contain meta-analyses. Meta-analysis is the use of statistical methods to summarize the hernia de disco lumbar pdf results of independent studies (glass 1976). By combining information from all relevant studies, meta-analyses can provide more precise estimates of the effects of hernia de disco lumbar pdf health care than those derived from the individual studies included hernia de disco lumbar pdf within a review (see chapter 9, section 9.1.3). They also facilitate investigations of the consistency of evidence across hernia de disco lumbar pdf studies and the exploration of differences across studies.

An article or book published after examination of published material hernia de disco lumbar pdf on a subject. It may be comprehensive to various degrees and the time hernia de disco lumbar pdf range of material scrutinized may be broad or narrow, but the reviews most often desired are reviews of the hernia de disco lumbar pdf current literature. The textual material examined may be equally broad and can hernia de disco lumbar pdf encompass, in medicine specifically, clinical material as well as experimental research or case reports. State-of-the-art reviews tend to address more current matters. A review of the literature must be differentiated from HISTORICAL hernia de disco lumbar pdf ARTICLE on the same subject, but a review of historical literature is also within the hernia de disco lumbar pdf scope of this publication type.

Enter the first MESH term into the pubmed search box. When you search nutrition assessment [mh], pubmed uses an "explode" strategy to augment your search that also searches the narrower hernia de disco lumbar pdf MESH terms found in the MESH hierarchy in the MESH hernia de disco lumbar pdf database.

Some concepts that you search will not yet have or hernia de disco lumbar pdf ever have MESH controlled vocabulary assigned to them. Terms without MESH include acronyms like NHANES. Search NHANES two ways. First, search for the acronym in the title by entering it hernia de disco lumbar pdf as follows nhanes [ti]

Without MESH to identify articles that truly cover your topic, searching a keyword in the title better distinguishs articles that hernia de disco lumbar pdf truly cover your topic from those that do not. Without MESH to map all articles using other synonyms to hernia de disco lumbar pdf your topic, repeat your search with each synonym. You can search several synonyms together by using OR as hernia de disco lumbar pdf illustrated below.

A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the hernia de disco lumbar pdf acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).

PubMed subject specialists assign MESH terms to articles that truly hernia de disco lumbar pdf cover the topic and assign the same MESH term to hernia de disco lumbar pdf articles even then an author uses a different synonym for hernia de disco lumbar pdf the topic. Thus, it maps all articles to one MESH term that cover hernia de disco lumbar pdf your topic.

If MESH existed for every term, KEYWORD searching would not be required. MESH is assigned to every article, but there is a time delay before newly entered articles hernia de disco lumbar pdf are assigned MESH. Additionally, acronymns are not assigned MESH. New drug names, new terms and newly coined phrases take a while to hernia de disco lumbar pdf be formally defined, widely used, and formally adopted by the professionals using it; only then is MESH assigned.

Find MESH terms with their definitions in the MESH DATABASE. Once you find a useful term send it to pubmed hernia de disco lumbar pdf to be searched. To search MESH term: check the box next to the term, at far left, click LINK, at opened menu select "pubmed" to send to be searched. Click HISTORY to see search strategy so far.

When viewing articles retrieved from a search, switch display from summary view to CITATION view and scroll hernia de disco lumbar pdf below abstract to view the MESH for each article that hernia de disco lumbar pdf has been processed and assigned MESH. If you see an useful highlighted MESH term following the hernia de disco lumbar pdf abstract, just clicking it will send it to pubmed to be hernia de disco lumbar pdf searched.

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