The current perspectives of stem cell therapy in orthopedic surgery shoulderworks consulting, pllc estenosis espinal lumbar

Musculoskeletal injuries may be painful, troublesome, life limiting and also one of the global health problems. Various treatment modalities are available for treating these problems; however, the most effective method is controversial ( 1– 3). Current research dolor lumbar izquierdo has focused on identifying novel and effective methods of addressing the morbidity associated with musculoskeletal injuries. Stem cells are a promising and growing area of researches within the medical field ( 4).

Stem cells are described as to have a potential to differentiate more than 200 dolor lumbar embarazo different cell types in the body. They are specific cell types that can create new cells in existing healthy tissues and may help to repair tissues in those structures that are injured or damaged when they differentiate into multi lineages and becoming multipotent under appropriate conditions ( 5).

They primarily create progenitor cells and these cells have capability of more specialized functions, such as brain cells, red blood cells, bone or cartilage ( 2). Among the different sources for cell therapy, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most escoliosis dorsolumbar dextroconvexa preferred source because they can differentiate to many different tissues, in terms of muscles, bones, fat and cartilage ( 6), and can be obtained from many sources, such as bone, tendon, skin, adipose tissue, umbilical cord, blood and amnion ( 7– 11).

Over the past 15 years, orthopedic surgeons have focused their escoliosis dextroconvexa attention to MSCs therapies ( 12, 13). There are plenty of animal studies that have successful results and there is an increasing concern about their use in human studies6. In these studies, stem cell procedures have been focused on promoting fracture healing and nonunion, regenerating articular cartilage in degenerated joints, healing ligaments or tendon injuries, and replacing degenerative vertebral disks ( 6).

In light of the previous studies, stem cells have been used in bone tissue escoliosis dorsolumbar izquierda engineering. Bone tissue engineering promises alternative tools that develop a microenvironment that holds osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. In the recent studies, researchers have developed strategies of combined use of MSCs and three-dimensional biodegradable polymeric scaf-folds. In addition, Udehiya et al. ( 37) declared that combined use of hydroxyapatite scaffolds and BM-MSCs provides faster and better healing of bone segmental defects in a rabbit model, when compared to hydroxyapatite alone. Muwan Chen et al. ( 38) declared that in vitro bone marrow human mesenchymal stem cells causas del dolor lumbar parte baja espalda that combined with hyaluronic acid and b-Tri calcium phosphate-coated polymeric scaffold provided enhanced osteogenic differentiation and cellular proliferation and reorganization of the cellular matrix.

Colosimo et al. ( 39) isolated BM-MCSs from 8 New Zealand white adult rabbits than combined scaffold-BM-MSCs and compared to cells cultured in absence of scaffolds. They obtained promising results for bone marrow regeneration in vitro and in vivo settings. There are a few studies available in the radiografia de columna lumbar normal literature in this area; therefore, further studies are needed to investigate the most efficient cell-scaffold combination approach.

Regeneration capacity of damaged hyaline cartilage is very limited; therefore, some materials are needed for efficient and faster repair. Mesenchymal cells are the novel methods and many authors have recommended them because they have a reliable and reproducible effect on cartilage repair recently dolor lumbar cie 10. Human bone marrow stem cells (hMSCs) have shown to have chondrogenic and regenerative potential in the considerable number of studies ( 54– 56). Mesenchymal stem cells have a potential to produce a cartilage-like tissue with escoliosis lumbar leve a matrix based on type II collagen and aggrecan under suitable culture conditions ( 57, 58). In the clinical practice, isolated chondrocytes have been prepared from healthy cartilage tissue and cultured with the cell culture and then, they intra-articularly injected to knees.

Wakitani firstly reported clinical application of MSCs in the treatment of osteoarthritic knees and declared better arthroscopic and histological outcomes dolor lumbar lado derecho ( 59). Murdoch et al. ( 60) stated that cultured human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with Transwell permeable membranes as specific growth and a differentiation factor, provided rigid translucent cartilaginous discs and expressed cartilage-specific structural proteins as aggrecan and type II collagen. Zhu et al. ( 61) preferred the combination of BM-MCSs and a connective tissue growth factor, and they stated that the regenerated hyaline cartilage was similar to normal hyaline cartilage after the treatment. Guo et al. ( 62) used BM-MSCs combined with TGF-beta in the treatment estenosis lumbar of full-thickness defects of articular cartilage and declared successful results. Reyes et al. ( 63) stated that BMDSCs combined with BMP had successful results in the repair of rabbit’s osteochondral defects.